Saturday, October 31, 2009

How to choose a cage for domestic birds?

green parrot
The bird lived for a time in the cage, is accustomed to people and ceases to be shy. It ceases to look for food, getting it ready, and most importantly, loses the ability to be alert. Issued from the cells of birds often become victims of predators, fall under the wheels of cars and simply die of hunger. Therefore, a man who has decided to take the bird to his home, must remember that it takes the whole "bird" life.

Cell shape and size depend on to what bird they are and for what purpose you intend to keep it. Males songbirds kept separately in small cell, which makes it possible to fully enjoy their singing.
Canary or goldfinches and other songbirds small size of the cells contain a length of 50 cm, height 35 cm and a width of 30 cm with a starling-sized bird cage needed a little more - the length of the cell must be at least 70 cm, height - 60, width - 40 cm . cage for a parrot, for example, Grays, or Amazon, even more - the length and height of 80 cm, width 55 cm

Avoid small birds placed in a large cage. In such a cage bird feels uncomfortable, little singing, itself reduces the size of his home, holding only a small part of it. You can not put the birds in too small for these cells, in which the birds or sit motionless on a perch, so that get fatter and die quickly, or because of the narrowness break their feathers on the tail and wings.
The form of the cells is also important. The most practical rectangular cells, with no protrusions, often with flat top, with the exception of cells for Klestov, which is recommended to put in a cage with a domed top. Architectural excess cells not only make it difficult to clean, but also contribute to the reproduction of blood-sucking arthropods.

It is also a place for the cell. Most importantly - enough sunlight and lack of drafts. Is a suitable place at the side or opposite the window wall of the room to the sun's rays shining on her 2-3 hours a day. Do not install a cage on the window sill to avoid overheating and cold bird!

Cells of larger sizes - cages used for group content of small birds. The optimum size of cages - 80 cm by 35 cm by 35 cm are kept young birds that require a lot of movement to strengthen the muscles. In the cages can be propagated small songbirds and small parrots, putting them back in pairs.

To produce cells use different materials - wood, plastic, metal, organic and silicate glass. Twigs cells made of stainless or galvanized wire, or bamboo. For birds, splitting the wooden parts of the cells with their powerful beaks - parrots, crossbill and others, better to use metal cage. There are cells of the so-called box-type, in which only one side covered with netting or twigs, and others - solid, made of Plexiglas or opaque materials. Box feeders cells, set on one another, form a bird's wardrobe, they are suitable for breeding birds, as well as in teaching young canaries in the shade of the curtains open. In cells with a soft-top contain larks and some other insectivorous birds, which are in strong fear tend to take off vertically and in an ordinary cell can get hurt badly.

The bottom of the cage, pallet, must be rising. He poured out on the big river sand, washed from the dust and debris, and calcined in the fire or in the oven. Pallet better make of galvanized iron.

In each cell must be placed perches, whose diameter should be almost equal to the coverage fingers feet. Perches need to have at such a distance from each other, so that birds can easily jump from one to another, barely flapping their wings, and that while on a perch, not contaminated by their faeces food and water, as well as the tail of each other. The number of perches depends on destination cell. For land birds, such as a lark, perches are not necessary, you can replace them with hemp or bumps.

Finally, let me say goodbye to the next part. To be continued! Good luck to you, dear, Dear Readers!

Dmitry Kolpakov

Friday, October 30, 2009

How the animals were in the dock?

prisoned animal
As we know, many people advocate the protection of animals.

French actress Brigitte Bardot intervened for the Australian kangaroo, whose meat is sold as dog food, and for harp seals, which are slaughtered because of the durable fur.

She appealed to the government of different countries to ban the export of elephant tusks and ivory, because African elephants on the verge of extinction.

Brigitte Bardot is fighting against the extermination of animals in laboratories for research purposes. To successfully influence public opinion, she sold her dresses and jewels, and set up some money to fund the rescue of animals.

For some poets, artists, musicians, animals were muse. Italian poet, Nobel laureate in 1975 in literature Eugenio Montale titled his collection of poems "Pantsir cuttlefish. In his poetry of nature - this background and character. He admires the singing of the hoopoe and its beauty.

Deer, mountain goats, rabbits, cheetahs, sharks, crabs, corals, sea ruffs, eels and cod served as models of the XVI century Italian painter Arcimboldo. He depicted the human head, made up of dozens of animals, linked together.

Many saints have been friends with the animals. Seraphim of Sarov fed with his hands an enormous bear. St. Francis of Assisi not only listened to the singing nightingales, and talked with wolves and flowers, with stars and crickets.

For many people, farm animals - are symbols. Lion - the king of beasts, the horse - the holy son of the god Poseidon, the ruler of the seas. Indians in America worshiped bison and coyotes. For the Greeks the butterfly was the way the human soul.

Do you know that in the past, many animals were arrested and tried in the present? In 1386 in France to the death penalty for murder was sentenced pig.

There was a medieval custom to throw off the bell cats. It was felt that way exorcise, which moved into these gentle animals.

Even worse: once the swallows prosecuted for violation of silence in the church, a rooster - a fact that the egg hatched, and the family of mice - for the destruction of the crop of barley. However, in rodents was a good lawyer. He won the case, arguing that their action was caused by the vital necessity - hunger.

In 1985, one of the towns in the province of Abruzzo, which is located in Italy, a judge ordered the detention of a starling.

Bird was accused of violating the afternoon rest people. After several days' imprisonment he was released, but with the condition to leave the lane, where it caused a lot of noise.

I wonder why none of the offenders spat llama or camel has not filed a claim for recovery from these animals for moral damage?

Literature: André Bertino and Fred Val, "366 ... and even more stories about animals."

Olga Cereals

Thursday, October 29, 2009

Ah, this wedding! What give tapered ... birds?

birds love
Spring-red disperse in anticipation of emergency meetings with the hot summer! From the heat all around already awakened, animated, clinging to each other. What chirp birds, how gladly share? An - they also married in the spring.
What a surprise to us may seem like rituals and ceremonies taken in the bird kingdom ...

For example, hand wedding offerings. Ah We terns, in particular, it is believed that the groom gave his coveted fish. Biologists differently describe this process. MN Sotskaya wrote that she eats it immediately. But R. Chauvin said that, on the contrary, in no case:

"Many ornithologists believe that is happening rite of mutual recognition of spouses: indeed, before they bring to the fish, the male looks to many females" in the face. Sometimes, some full of virtue females return gift, but the male is long and sad in a hurry to give the fish another. Sometimes the male and female fish are kept for two ends, but do not eat it ... "

Here it is: a fish in two beaks!
birds in love
But the said Maria Sotskaya draws attention to the fact that the ladies-tern had a clear preference to woo the bridegroom, who handed them to "fish a fixed size: not too little, but not too large."

But there is such a tradition, which includes asking for a gift for Mr Right. What kind of pettiness? No, just a woman's cunning, which (after Noble and Wurm) Richard Docking in the book "The Selfish Gene," explains:

"... female advantage is also that in the process raised a male courting her food. In birds, it is usually regarded as a kind of a return to the juvenile behavior on the part of females. Begging for food in the male, she accompanies this movement, typical for young birds. It was assumed that such behavior automatically attract a male, just as the man appears to be attractive when a woman babbles or pouts like a child. It was during this period, female birds need as much extra food, as it accumulates reserves of nutrients for the creation of a huge egg. It is possible that the food podnosimaya her male, is his direct contribution to the eggs. Thus, somewhat reduced the difference between the initial contribution to the chicks from one and the other parents. "

really all a matter of pragmatics?

To test this, a rigorous researcher (Mason) had a pretty hard, in my feminine look, experiment with landrails, putting that in a marriage between a stuffed female. Poor fellow, taking a bird "Galatea" for the real bride, intent on every-other-third become her de facto husband. Having suffered a fiasco in trying to realize the intimate relationship with unfeeling "pair", the groom flew ... but soon returned with a caterpillar in its beak, which is presented as a gift to this "shy". Experimenter's fate did not interest him, so that we can only believe that the unfortunate birds not lost faith in their manhood.

Wedding gift from the birds, nicknamed grebes
However, it happens differently. In the bird community found practical gentlemen who bring a wedding gift narrowing, but do not pay until she agrees to fulfill masculine desire. What, eh?

But not all the wedding gifts from birds associated with the gastronomic direction. Some are obviously symbolic. For example, the offering stone. At the white-footed Booby taken to the male brought in its beak a little stone and put it at the feet of the chosen one (and she takes it in his beak, and shift to another place, and then it again - at her feet: do you ... and then the ritual lasts until the establish full agreement on which could take up to an hour and two).

And the toadstools, like the other footed boobies, which are called the north, with the courtship brings each other scraps of seaweed (just like the Dolphins, who also have a canon!), The herons are - stick, but the American waxwings ... woos with berries. He will give, she will take, then return it to her again ... And, as in the famous gypsy: "Ah, once again, many, many times ..."

Wedding offerings - not just gifts. Even the birds know it. And you of the ceremony did not resemble?

Valentina Ponomareva

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Do I need to keep in the house more than one cat?

cats in the house
You know the situation where half-starved kitten begging in the house? And you let ... And again. Then he picked up, then you "tossed", and then ... Friends, neighbors, strangers everywhere already tell that you have a good heart. For the first foundlings followed thrown out, which have become obsolete, uneven adolescent kittens which have not been on time owner, and as long as you do not say "no", you have collected an army of cats.

Here's another situation. You have a pretty ordinary cat, but you wanted to have a pedigree. First you decide on one. Then another one, and you covered fever breeding cats. Buying a cat, and the temptation to raise the offspring of the elite, and you can not part with the beautiful young stock until then, until it becomes so much that you frantically start looking for new owners.

So, the question "How many cats in the house - not too much?", As a rule, impossible to give a clear, unequivocal answer. But there are points of departure, found "cats owners" and fanatical fans, with someone, often, alas, bitter experience should meet. Experienced veterinarians agree to these terms.

Do not take the cats more than you have hands to caress them. For cats, this procedure is very important. In England, where very kind to these animals, there is even a saying: "If a cat is not iron, it will dry the marrow. Of course, the British did not give the literal meaning of this proverb, but it speaks eloquently of the need for petting a cat.

Each of your comrades in housing may form around itself a zone of "taboo" - a mini-site, which will bypass the other cats.

For the normal physical and mental development of each cat requires no less than five square meters of "homeownership."

Under no circumstances do not allow ourselves to persuade to open an "animal shelter" if this does not allow your wallet.

If you intend to share life with not one, but with a couple or a "quartet" cats, it is better to take them all at once.

Sisters and brothers of one litter, who grew up together, as a rule, get along with each other throughout their lives.

Prove that neutered cats are more tolerant of the "brand new", but in relation to the kittens, they often assume the role of "mother" and acquaint young people with a home schedule. Well they are friends with a cat-ladies.

In contrast, cats jealously defend their right of primacy and graciously accept only the young animal, which subsequently will always play "second fiddle".

In order to teach each other the two whimsical opinionated females, requires experience and a subtle flair. And even if it succeeds, it may happen that for one of the two you have to find new owners. Because, if after three weeks of home world still is not adjusted, there is the threat of a long war, causing stress not only cats.

The same can be said about cats. If the month feud to an end, to try to separate the two bullies.

Hygiene of housing could not speak. It goes without saying. Each animal must have its own bathroom (a box, tray, and so on). In someone else's "pot" no representative of those self-centered animals will not go. And you'll toil with broken furniture and flooring.

Ideally, cats, especially long-haired, need daily brushing. Change the litter as pollution wool. So, you know, if you are unable to meet the listed essential requirements for cats, think: "And if you need general starts a pet?".

Tatiana Shuvaeva

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

What to do if you suddenly lost a friend?

cute puppy
Do not sigh in disappointment, but it goes not about people but about domestic animals. As they say in medicine: prevention is better than cure it. It is quite appropriate this wisdom. Therefore, for a walk better show dogs with leash and collar, is attached to the plate with the nickname of an animal, your address and phone number.

Cats to walk, too, will not prevent hoist on his neck just such a medallion, of course, if you really care about the welfare of your pet. In my experience, that it is not easy (especially if the cat is not accustomed from childhood to the collar). But after some time it will cease to be angry at you. Yes, and you can praise himself for caution when delivered to the address of your entangled revelers.

So, we go further. Do not tie a dog in offices, shops and other places that you need to visit. Try not to combine walking the dog, and business interests. But if not do without it, try not to let the dog out of sight.

Do not flatter yourself, believing that your dog - fierce guard. For the experienced hunter (if I se the kindergarten your dog) to divert even a vigilant dog - matter of a few minutes. In addition, many pets, especially in large cities, distrust of outsiders are not different.

But if precautions have not helped, and the animal is lost? Logically without losing a minute to begin the search, give a notice in newspapers, since it is permissible - stuck them in place of the alleged loss, seek to support the station caught animals. If you have a solid reason to believe the theft happened, please a written application to the nearest police station, demanding that a criminal proceeding.

In the language of our law, no matter how blasphemous it sounds, the dog (and cat, of course!) Is a private property owner. And the Act declares the protection of the state personal property of citizens. For theft, "that is the secret theft of another's property, the perpetrators are liable under Article 158 of the Criminal Code.

There have been cases where dogs were kidnapped, snatching from the hands of young and elderly owners leashes. And it is - robbery (Article 161 of the Criminal Code), or robbery (Article 162), when the abduction is connected with violence, dangerous to the health and lives of victims. Penalty on these items is deprivation of liberty.

Thus, the theft was not just strangers find lost animals and require you to pay? Then comes into force the Civil Code of Russia, under which the finder is not entitled to claim compensation from the owner, "if the finder of the animal is not announced his discovery, or tried to conceal it." In this case, it will only reimbursement for the maintenance of a pet and the search for its owner, if they were difficult (Article 232 Civil Code).

How much in monetary terms? Please: "A person detained neglected animals, is entitled to a reward of up to twenty percent of the value of the animal. If you found the animal is of value only to the former owner, the amount of remuneration determined by agreement of the parties." The cost of the animal can be determined based on the size of the market price, it rocks.

It also happens that you have found a missing friend, but he lives with other people. Do you have the right to take him back? The Civil Code says that if you have found no attempt to find you (and it must be recorded by the police or the mayor's office statement of the detention neglected animals) and that had not yet been six months since the discovery of your friend (the starting point - the time of filing of the same statement ), then you may pick up your dog (or cat).

So it turns out that six months after receipt of the police or the municipality a statement about the discovery of an animal, it will become the property of others, and you will be very difficult to take him back. True, you can try to prove in court that your friend still loves you or the new owners are not good enough.

In legal terms it sounds like: "the previous owner has the right under the circumstances, evidence of the preservation in it by ... (the animal) ... affection or ill or mistreatment of his new owner, to demand their return to the conditions determined by agreement with the new owner, and if it is impossible to reach an agreement - the court. "

And what happened? This song is good, start again. Returned to where to start. The conclusion seems perfectly logical: not to part with loved ones!

Tatiana Shuvaeva

Monday, October 26, 2009

How to care for your dog?

beauty dog
"Beauty will save the world. We all know this is a great saying. Beauty will save you and our dogs from ill-will, and sometimes anger others, will help win favorable to them.

And how often at exhibitions and freeze, we delight: Here is a posture, gait, exterior, and shiny coat, and commands!

But we should not forget that beautiful dog - this is, above all, a healthy dog. And this dog needs daily care, attention, proper feeding, veterinary surgeon systematic consultation.

But what kind of dog can be considered beautiful? This question is not easy, and unambiguous answer to this question is no.Hounds, greyhounds, nark should be thin, lean body, as St. Bernard or newfoundler should look heavy and unwieldy. Beauty mastiff, boxer - in a short shiny coat, and the terrier must have a tight curly hair, wearing a beard and mustache. In short, the concept of beauty in general, and the dog in particular, is very difficult to admit a lot of interpretations, and relies solely on general and individual tastes. And for them, as you know, do not argue!


Wool in dogs varies, in different ways and have to take care of her. Probably the least hassle from the owners haired dogs.

Boxers, Great Danes, Dobermans, Rottweilers, and mongrels with short hair enough times in three days of brushing, not soft and not rigid, like a wardrobe. However, if the hair is very dirty, you can take and a hard brush, but its use must be carefully so as not to scratch the skin of the dog. Even if the dog seems to you very clean, not too lazy to take 10-15 minutes in the hands of a brush. This procedure is useful not only for wool, it provides an opportunity to massage the skin, increase blood flow to it.

By the way, now almost all have vacuum cleaners, and cleaning the apartment a good idea at the same time a little vacuumed the dog. However, her first reaction to such cleaning is not always positive, but this is only the beginning. Then, as a rule, the dog gets used to this procedure and even asked to be cleaned this way!

More trouble for owners of dogs with hair of medium length and long-haired: shepherds, huskies, collies, setters. Here, in addition to vacuuming, you need a thick ridge. Generally, the more you comb the hair, the better, but in the molting period is a must do every day. Incidentally, some amateur breeders do not emit a soft, combed wool, and gathered it, spun and then knitted warm mittens, hats, socks, sweaters. They say that things are out of this wool help with radiculitis and are the warmest.


Do I need to wash your dog? It is necessary, only very rarely. They washed the dog with warm water and soap or a neutral shampoo.

In winter, dogs love to roll about in the snow, and themselves this good clean their skin. And those dogs who do not like the snow bath, you can while walking to wipe clean the snow. Summer dog usually does not miss a chance to splash in a pond or river, he does well enough.

The sad fate of some light-fluffy dogs, especially lapdogs. The owners have even wash their pets almost every day, so even with soap and water. Hair from the immoderate bathing lose fat cover, become fragile and brittle. After washing the dog should be groomed.

Nose .

Over the nose of healthy dog care is not necessary. I awake dog, he is cold and slightly humid, and during sleep - a little warm. Some breeders believe that the tip of the nose can determine the temperature of the diseased animal. But better not to overestimate its sensitivity, put dog ordinary thermometer. If the temperature of the dogs are not above 39 degrees, do not worry.

Let your pets be healthy!

Dmitry Kolpakov

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Stray dogs: shoot or sterilized?

stray dogs
Figures do not lie. Calculate how many people you bark furiously, and how many dogs!
"Pshekruy" - Polish magazine.

The problem of stray animals acute in many cities of Russia. Hundreds of reports of attacks and the loci for the year, and their number is growing. The problem is exacerbated, but authorities do not solve it. Sterilization program has not brought the expected results. So where mutts are taken and who is actually bites people?

In the cities a growing number of abandoned animals. Home emit not only cats but dogs of various breeds (including "of fighting"). Coordinator of the Moscow city search service animals Svetlana Badunova confirms that the basis of a lot of purebred dogs and cats. In Moscow alone on the streets of the city inhabited by about 30 thousands of stray animals.

"To say that the bites are responsible for all the homeless, which like" all the dogs to hang, it would not be true. According to our estimation - about 2%, - said Konstantin Sabinin, project manager of the Center for Animal Rights Protection "Vita".
"... 78% have grabbed at home, owners' dogs. The leaders of the attacks American Staffordshire terrier, pit bull, Rottweilers, bull terriers "- says Nemsadze Vakhtang Pankratevich, chief pediatric surgeon in Moscow.

Aggressive dog breeds - a separate and serious issue. The man brought them up himself for the amusement: for fighting and harassment. Now the acquisition of such an animal - a tribute to fashion. However, these "gladiators" are not to blame, that they made a formidable fighter with a strong jaw and a stranglehold. They are just victims of human experimentation. Consequently, the responsibility for the conduct and consequences of the actions of these serious dog lies on the person on the host.

As mongrels, then the first stray dog appeared, when it threw the man on the street. Children of those most, once exposed to the door pets - now mixed collie, mixed taxes and other "MUTANTS", running through the streets of cities. Uncontrolled breeding of animals is a major factor in the emergence of "nobility." Factory shaft spawn a huge number of animals. Offer exceeds demand. Notorious prestige of doing his job, leaving the last chance of the usual "no breed" find the dog house. "The Forgotten" in the country, "dropped out" of the machines and just lost animals also joined the army of street quadrupeds.

Very often people provoked the aggression of animals - will kick one leg, the child is hit with a stick, taking the example of the mother, the other will strangle puppies. This and every home like a dog. It affects a large number of irresponsible owners of animals.
"Since the majority of owners in Russia produced their dogs for a walk without a muzzle, leash and, at times, generally without their support. Determine ownership of such a dog is difficult. Boss, walking near distance, fearing tragedy committed by his dog, without revealing his connection with it, hiding from the crime scene ", - says Konstantin Sabinin from the Center" Vita ".

The situation is tense in the society to the limit. People are ready to take up arms. The authorities have already announced nearly insolvency sterilization program. But officials do not want to really understand where they are going budget money. As explained by Ilya Bluvshtein, assistant deputy IY Nowicki: "... there is an imitation, registration. Sterilized one dog, and write that sterilized, five or seven. "

According to biologists and veterinarians that the program has earned for real, one-time fee to sterilize more than 80% of stray animals. ZooDefenders sure that the state should take control of breeding dogs and cats. Before long, day and night working factory machine (nurseries, Flats, markets), this whole factory shaft, which supplies more and more new animals - any action will have the character of Sisyphean labor.

"We need only examine the experience of Western countries, where the problem of stray animals has been solved in two steps. We must understand the root cause of the problem, because the fight with the investigation completely ineffective. The first step - the state should take control of breeding animals. The second step - to promote pristroystvo animals from shelters ", - says Irina Novozhilov, president of the Center" Vita ".

While officials will postpone the problem, former knackery inefficient practices continue to capture animals cruel methods (in the eyes of the children by arranging massacre) and receive budget money from the pockets bitten by the Russians. "Bad is not politics, terrible performance! For decades in this country practiced method of killing, which yielded no results. This method is inefficient, not to mention the fact that this blatant cruelty "- says Ilya Bluvshtein.

Maria Moscow

Saturday, October 24, 2009

How to train a dog to perform basic commands?

dog and stick
Greetings all, dear readers!

Specify at once that for dog breeders with experience of my articles may seem naive, containing well-known truth. But remember the time when you first started a small four-legged friend. How many questions that seem laughable now, and clear, stood in front of you! One of these problems - the basis of education, training of dogs. The best option, of course, seek the assistance of professional dog handlers, inscribed with the dog on the course or take private lessons. However, this will require funds, and, often, considerable. And perhaps will need transportation to "disciple" in "dog" school, did not always such a school nearby, and not every dog can go by bus or subway.

So, I want to share experiences with those who personally wants to teach your pet basic dog obedience, science, in other words, learn the basics, some of the most important commands of the general rate of training. Let's start with the principal - when to start? Opinions on this vary. Even the proposed classes do not injure the dog's psyche to a year. But here is how to convince a year old, who grew up without any bans, shaggy "Mitrofanushka" that the time has come to learn and obey? The best way to start the lessons, when the dog turns 5-6 months. Prior to that education must be indirect, incidental. For example, the command "Sit" - one of the first, fully assimilated and has run for three months. However, if the consolidation did not happen - do not worry. Begin lessons - come and knowledge.

For studies will be required : collar, leash, treat (small pieces of cheese, cooked sausage, meat, crackers) and a playground. This should be a place where no one can stop you, and you, in turn, do not bother anyone, and no danger will not threaten the dog. For example, can not hold classes next to the roadway, if the territory is, of course, is not fenced. 3-4 hours before training the dog must feed. Foster, that is to praise and give a treat, it should be every time the correct command. Voice commands to send a clear, loud, but not without a cry. Duplicated gestures. Subsequently, the team must be carried out either by voice command, or by gesture.

Team "to me!» . Right hand pulling at shoulder level and sharply down to the thigh. The dog must run up and sit on the left leg trainer, not more than 50 cm from it. If the dog just does not want to approach, you can make a couple of steps towards him. At the beginning of working out of this team is particularly important privacy. And what was it then, "To me!", When all run and play. Immediately after the correct execution pat a dog, say "Well, to me!". Give a treat. Just do not take immediately at the leash and not withdraw from the walk. Otherwise, "To me!" Will be associated with unpleasant, and implemented accordingly. Several times call simply to praise and give a treat and release again to play and run. Ideal - a dog on the first team (verbal or gestural), valid, and passes behind the trainer and sits at the left leg.

Team "Walk!» . She is accompanied by a gesture: the right arm freely thrown forward. Off leash, hold the dog's collar with his left hand. Give voice commands and gesture, and release the dog. Let runs. Periodically beckon students, take the collar, hold a little bit and repeat the command. In principle, one of the most beloved teams, performed "on the cheers.

command "Sit!» . Gesture - bent at the elbow with the hand palm forward. Gave the command, slightly left hand presses down on the large dog, as if forcing her to sit down. Right hand over the leash holding up. Sit - "Good boy, sit, good!"- Give a delicacy. Typically, this lesson is absorbed very quickly and easily. Gradually the team are giving everything from a greater distance. A perfect result - the dog sits on a split (voice or gesture) team, while at a distance of 10-15 meters from you.

Team "Freeze» . Gesture - stretched forward right hand, palm turned upwards and is held at shoulder level. We help the dog understand what is required of her, the first time support under the belly. Then he begins to perform independently.

command "Lie down!» . Gesture - the right arm thrown forward from the shoulder, and lowered his hand down. After submitting the team push with one hand on the withers of the dog, as if pressing it to the ground, and the other holding a delicacy, under the nose of the trainee, but low. Reaching for the "sweets", the dog lie. You can sit in front of a dog, and slightly pull her front paws. The command "Lie down!" Dog should not to fall sideways. With a good performance - encouraging: "Well, lie. Well, and delicacy, of course. Ideal - dog falls by the team at a distance of 10-15 meters from the trainer.

Team "Next» . Gesture - cotton with his left hand on the hip. The dog should go to a trainer with the pace, so that her shoulder touched his left leg man. Before practicing this command give the dog how to frolic, to spend the extra energy. When walking next to him on a leash all attempts to go faster, slower, deviations in the direction and the like must be dealt a sharp "Next" and follow jerk leash. Praise good reaching near the dog, treat it, without stopping traffic. When the dog will walk calmly next to him on a leash at a distance of no less than 50 meters - removes the leash. And - all over again, only this time without a leash.

Team "Voice» . The easiest way to master it. See this, what dog likes a hollow - a toy on a sound ... Team. Then let's stimulus, and, having obtained the result, immediately forget to remove the object and begin to praise: "Good voice, good!" Gradually, "the student" understand - need to bark on command, but not because it revealed something that at its look, worthy barks.

And, finally, team "Whew!» is a very important team. The word puppy hears from infancy. Well, if the appropriate skills entrenched itself. If not - when you try to chase after the cat, picked up a nasty, stretch to find out relations with compatriots - to be followed by a loud sharp "Whew!" Jerk the leash, and possibly blow whip (no leash, with the dog should not have any unpleasant associations ). Let this painful sensation - but implicit, instantaneous execution of commands "Whew!" Save four-legged friend from so many troubles and misfortunes. But do not overdo it, the whole world can not be "Phew!".

Anna Lukasheva

Friday, October 23, 2009

Talking parrot. What is needed?

talking parrot
First, of course, itself a bird. Select a parrot depends on many factors. First, with your wishes. In addition, the financial capabilities and the time limit, which you will be able to pay his living buying.

Ordinary wavy (of course, male) will be able to talk and learn to 100-150 words. You, of course, will have to make some effort to his training, but they are entirely justified, when you first hear a comprehensible speech pet. It is relatively easy and enjoyable choice. Budgerigar at home unpretentious, very widespread. The cost of such a bird will make a relatively minor amount. Much more will need time, effort and your trembling love, care and attention in order to warm the tiny miracle that is affectionate and friendly, said in his first brief phrase.

Larger Corell will speak intelligibly than the budgie, and the vocabulary he has considerably wider. If him seriously enough to engage in (spending almost as much power, how much and at its corrugated counterpart) is clearly possible to ensure that the bird will master the vocabulary of 200-250 words. Of course, the option is more costly in material terms. But at the same time, more acceptable to those who had once sit hours on end, talking to a small flier and convincing him of the obvious truth: "Kesha good".

And, finally, the third most common types of parrots, usually falling in the list of favorites of the population, Grays . The size of a pigeon, noisy, loud, restless and very respectful of the disorder. Alas, this breed is different cleanliness. So be ready for that garbage out of the cell will dissipate within a few meters or steal the home. These are its characteristics. And more ... Go is particularly noteworthy that Grays - the most expensive of all the above. When buying a parrot, you get both great joy and an equally huge headache. Jaco clever, easily teachable, long-lived. Understand and remember from 300 to 500 words. Record wealth of vocabulary for the Grays were recorded in the middle of XX century. It was 800 words.

In any case, the room would not stop your mind: budgerigars, Carell, Grays, or some more exotic varieties - you have taken the first step towards gaining a new friend, a little unusual and not always responsible "in the subject, but very sincere and fun.

So, if you have decided on the breed, then you can proceed to the next step - the acquisition and learning. Ideal for the beginning of training and, consequently, for the purchase is a 3-month age of the chicks. This is the period when he was completely rested and no longer needs care of loving relatives.

The first case, after you become the happy owner of a living miracle, of course - to give him a decent name . Here, as elsewhere, there are subtleties. The most common nicknames, which honors pets caring owners, can be divided into three categories. It is, of course, only those names that would be acceptable, if you want your bird began to speak.

1. Short, distinctly. With pronounced hissing. For example, Kesha, Gosh, Pasha. These nicknames are appropriate. They are well remembered and easily pronounced.

2. Short, clear. With a booming sound "p". According to many (well-founded, by the way), it is the best option names. For example, Garik, Patrick, Lavrik. Parrots with great passion and enthusiasm pick up all the "roaring".

3. The names of the combined and original. In the two previous categories listed traditional nickname. However, often the owners of parrots themselves invent names or use less common. For example, Kerry, Henry, etc. Until the most unusual and bizarre. But it's worth noting that it should be tailored to specific name, calculated on the bird. Of course, it is undesirable to call a parrot Quetzalcoatl or something of the sort.

In general, for the selection of the name above all to observe a few basic criteria: brevity, clarity, accessibility, easy pronunciation.

Education parrot human speech , in fact, the same process as the child's education. Therefore there needs a certain system.

First, we should not pick and blab about it, you want to teach a bird, a chaotic, haphazard. Set Limit of a certain set of five or six offers and vary them, saying in a different sequence. The selected proposals should be small, meaningful and well-spoken. It is strongly recommended that you (at least up until the parrot had not learned his first lesson) to avoid complex terms and long words.

Secondly, talking to a parrot and repeating his "control" it, try not to abuse the frequent change of intonation, with whom you spoke them. Insist on a rhythm and tone of speech, remember this combination and use every time you start to deal with a bird. Parrot - primarily mockingbird, an imitator. He remembers not only the words but the manner of their blab. Therefore, frequent and rapid change in intonation series can knock him.

Thirdly, all the birds of the family of parrots are susceptible to the sounds of the environment. Great parody them and invent new combinations. Including your pet in the world of sounds from the outside, of course, would benefit. However, this should not be too carried away. If you want to achieve from it is birds of speech, to communicate more with him and not let him "tweet about his" with sparrows on the street.

This also should be attributed, and a widespread belief that the parrot is useful to listen to television or radio. They say it will draw out for himself a new word base. Indeed, can gain. But not immediately. At the initial stage of training for such a method is better not to apply. And if there is no alternative, then use it as sparingly as possible.

And one more advice for last. Parrot, of course, not a dog ... And not even a cat. But do not be harmful, if the first time he would only deal with one person or a small group of people. Subsequently, from such severity and restrictions can and should be safely abandoned.

In short, being persistent, attentive, caring and patient, without requiring your pet too much at once, but not allowing to relax, you will very soon will achieve results and be able to proudly demonstrate to all the familiar smart, intelligent, kind, and hand - not enough - talking parrot!

Svetlana Medvedev

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Is it true that the three-color CATS does not exists?

three  color cat
Nature never ceases to amaze mankind its riddles. Why caterpillar "trying on" a cocoon, a chameleon changes color, and the bees build their "state"? It seems to be these phenomena have long been studied and scientifically explained, but not everyone knows the reasons behind them.

Genetics, in the opinion of many, and there is a dark forest, impenetrable jungle of science. We all learned a little, that there are genes that are added to some amazing sequences form a unique and almost predictable combinations, just as different types of beads can produce original and delightfully different decorations. It turns out that a common mechanism of inheritance to us about the sign, but more narrow aspects of it, subtlety and cunning little known. For example, you probably have heard that three-colored cats in nature does not exist. What lies at the basis of this fact? How to explain such oddities Mrs. Genetics?

"Before contrive discussion, agree on terms", - said YM Lotman. So let's just note that a household name "tricolor cat" shall mean the cat (but not the cat), tortoiseshell color, ie color, which combines black and red (red), or black, red and white.

It is widely known statement of non-existent tortoise cats only half true. For such individuals still born, though very rarely. Most of them are sterile, that is deprived of the possibility of procreation.

The fact that genes are the basic colors of cats - black and red, are located in the same locus (fixed location of the gene within the chromosome) on the X chromosome, which have both sexes. The cat, having a set of XX can be red, black or tortoise-shell (ie, having a red and black). Cote same, the owner of HU, may have either a black or red color. Schematically it looks like this:

XX - female (two X chromosomes, the possible combinations: red, black, tortoiseshell);
XY - male (one X chromosome, the possible combinations: red, black).

Assume that the red color gene is denoted by Latin letter O, and the gene black - B, and depicted one of the options inheritance tortoiseshell color:

Black Cat (XB XB) + red male (XO Y) = 50% tortoise cats (XB XO), 50% of black cats (XB Y).

It turned out that the kittens are male "have" color of the mother. The same situation is observed in the case of the offspring from a pair of "red cat and a black cat": perhaps the birth tortoise cats and red seals. Here arises a tricky conclusion: genes, localized on the X chromosome and have no opportunity to "consolidate" in the Y-chromosome, passed from mother to son.

Chinese folk wisdom says: if one day you do not learn anything new, you lived through the day in vain. I hope your "today" you will not have wasted?

Anna Cat